The Medieval Lithuania and Lithuaniansin the Opinion of Hungarian Acts of the 14th Century
Doctor of Historical Sciences (Dr. Hab. in History), Professor,
Vasyl’ Stefanyk PreCarpathian National University (Ukraine, Ivano-Frankivsk),
The image of Lithuania and Lithuanians were keeping the constant character into Hungarian intellectual environment and on the pages of the Hungarian documents during 14th. We couldn’t say exactly, where the first information about this Baltic nation was appeared in the court of Arpads. Maybe it was an encyclopedic information, which was producing by the monks of the mendicant Orders of Catholic Church since 13th. Especially it were Franciscans and Dominicans. They could to collect the necessary knowledge about the no-Christianity peoples and countries on the North of Europe. It was important for the next evangelization and baptization of them. Lithuania was one of the latest, where worked Catholic missioners.
This country and nation weren’t associated in the Hungarian narratives 12th–14thwith any events. But, we would say about the aggrandizement of the information about Lithuania in the process of the active relations between Piasts and Anjou kings in 14th. Hungarian chronicles and chancellor office wrote about Lithuanians with detailed geographical and nomenclature descriptions. The Anjou dynasty in the union with Poland took a part in the straggle from the heritage of the Kingdom of Russia since 1340. The part of Volhyn’ was controlled by the dynasty of Lithuanian Gediminas. Before the different dynasty and diplomatic agreements the with Casimir III the king of Hungary Louis I was regularly organized the campaigns in Volhyn’. Understand, that the number of the acts about this evenst was increased during 1350–1370-ies. There were a different content of diplomas. Mainly was underlining the pagans religion of Lithuanians, which was enemy for the Christianity. We have an situations closely contacts between Anjou Louis and Lithuanian Duxes, for example, Keistutis.
It’s necessary to continue further critical archeographical edition of the Hungarian acts not only in Hungary, Romania, but also in Ukraine, Belorussia and Lithuania. I thing, it’s all possibility for the appearing through the years the absolutely new unknown corpus of the documents to the Hungarian-Lithuanian relationships, especially in Rus’. We haven’t got any completely edition of the contacts between Anjou and Gedimin dynasties for the present time. This theme is actually for Ukrainian history, because Ruthenians and Rus’ were in the stable contacts with European nobility families. Ruthenians took a part in the war events and economical life of Hungary and Lithuania. There is the information about that in the sources of the king chancellery office since 11th.
Lithuania, Lithuanians, Hungarian Kingdom, Anjou, Volhyn’, sources, acts, historiography.
- Bertényi, I. (1987). Magyarország az Anjouk korában. Budapest: Gondolat, 1987. 283. [in Hungarian].
- Grushevskyy, M. (1906). Z oblogy Belza v 1352 r. Zapysky NTS, 73/ 5. 158–159. [in Ukrainian].
- Chronici Hungarici compositio saeculi XIV (1937). In: Scriptores rerum Hungaricarum tempore ducum regumque stirpis Arpadianae gestarum: in 2 v. / edendo operi praefuit I. Szentpé Budapestini: Academia Litter. Hungarica atque Societate Histor. Hungarica in partem impensarum venientibus Typographiae Reg. Universitatis Litter. Hung Sumptibus, 1. 219–505. [in Latina].
- Domanovszky, A. (Comp.). (1938). Chronicon Posoniensis. In: Scriptores rerum Hungaricarum tempore ducum regumque stirpis Arpadianae gestarum: in 2 v. / edendo operi praefuit I. Szentpé Budapestini: Academia Litter. Hungarica atque Societate Histor. Hungarica in partem impensarum venientibus Typographiae Reg. Universitatis Litter. Hung Sumptibus, 2. 7–52. [in Latina].
- Fejer, G. (Comp.). (1835). Codex diplomaticus Hungariae ecclesiasticus ac civilis. Budae: Typis Typogr. Regiae Universitatis Ungaricae, 8/5. 319. [in Latina].
- Fejer, G. (Comp.). (1833). Codex diplomaticus Hungariae ecclesiasticus ac civilis. Budae: Typis Typogr. Regiae Universitatis Ungaricae, 9/2. 760. [in Latina].
- Homza, M. (2009). Uhorsko-poľská kronika. Nedocenený prameň k dejinám strednej Európy. Bratislava: Libri Historiae, Post scriptum. [in Slovakian].
- Kristó, Gy. (1988). Az Anjou-kor háborúi. Budapest: Zrínyi Katonai Kiadó. [in Hungarian].
- Voloshchuk, M. (2007). Pokhody Layosha Anzhuyskogo protiv Litvy v polskoy istoriografii ХІХ – nachala ХХІ vv. In: Kryžiaus karų epocha Baltijos regiono tautų istorinėje sąmonėje. Mokslinių straipsnių rinkinys, sugarė Rita Regina Trimonienė, Robertas Jurgaitis. Saulės: Delta, 303–318. [in Ukrainian].
- Zhyvkovich, T., Petrovich, V., &Uzelac, A. (Comps.). (2013). Anonymi Descriptio Europae Orientalis. Anonimov opis Istochne Europe. Beograd: Istoriyski institut [in Latina].